In other words, a great steel and heat treatment can’t save a bad design. Early in our marriage, Sarah and I were working hard to get out of debt, so just buying a piece of steel to make a knife wasn't easy. Some knives will be used for extended cutting sessions where resharpening is not feasible or at least undesirable. There is something to be said for keeping your focus limited to better understand what you are working with and not to be distracted by every new steel you are introduced to. As mentioned a few times in this article, edge geometry is most important for cutting performance, and that is the focal point of knife performance, in my opinion. Knowing the proper temperatures, and knowing what they look and feel like, is a critical skill for the bladesmith. I wouldn’t expect the White steels to be as good for toughness since our 1095 tests weren’t as good as 52100, apart from maybe White #3 with its lower carbon content. I read around in your heat treatment articles a bit, but did not see if this was already covered. 99 FREE Shipping S35VN, M4, Elmax, and 440C show lower edge retention in the knife company dataset, for example, but D2 and 154CM showed higher edge retention. In the world of hand-made knives there are many makers out there who would say you can’t – or shouldn’t – forge stainless steel. The typical low hardenability steels are 1095 and W2. If desiring high edge retention in combination with ease in finishing, the highest edge retention among those is CPM-154. When steel is poured into a mold, it will need to be formed into shape, after which the end result will be manipulated to create a sense of homogeneity which, as I’ve already explained, is what forging is (in layman terms). It is good for making blades that are smaller and that get lighter use. Higher austenitizing temperatures lead to better corrosion resistance because more chromium is put in solution, but too high can lead to a reduction in toughness. Z-Tuff is also produced by Carpenter as CD#1. But for now let’s focus on toughness and edge retention. Damascus steel refers to a process whereby two different steel grades are forge-welded together and acid-etched to create steel with unique and eye-catching patterns. Tool steel is very similar to carbon steel, but contains additional alloys that make it more resistant to corrosion so it can be used in more situations (like for many outdoor tools). Differentially heat treatments generally refers to methods that achieve a hard edge but a soft “spine.” There are several methods for achieving this, including: 1) heating only the edge prior to quenching so that the spine never hardens, 2) using insulation such as clay on part of the blade so that it isn’t cooled as rapidly as the rest of the blade, and 3) tempering back part of the blade to a higher temperature. I will be sure to keep this steel selecting guide in mind after I find a good knife making class in my area so that I can ensure I have a relatively easier time crafting knives my first time around. Your articles (especially the in depth 52100 history and heat treatment ones) helped me to choose 52100 and Vanadis 4Extra for.my future projects, depends on the geometry and application. I was not able to share specific results from that dataset but I was able to perform statistical analysis to derive a simple question that predicts edge retention based on hardness, edge angle, and amount of carbide. 10V is also sold as “PM A11” though don’t be confused with A11-LVC which is a lower carbon version. In a few cases the equation doesn’t line up with the results from the knife company but do line up with the results in the table above from Bohler-Uddeholm and Crucible, or vice versa, so I am happy overall with the predictive ability of the equation. Combining two steels together requires steels that are compatible in heat treatment (similar hardening and tempering temperatures, similar size changes) and will reveal good contrast after etching. Optimal steels include AEB-L and 52100. For stainless steels there aren’t a lot of regularly available options. These two points are also true for high-alloy non-stainless steels with significant chromium content though no heat treatment will make them stainless. I previously wrote two articles about a large dataset of CATRA data provided to me by a knife manufacturer. When the “heat treatment is more important” argument is brought up, it is sometimes recommended that a knifemaker should focus on a single steel and learn it completely. The above paragraph only took a few lines to write and a few minutes to compose, and yet many metallurgists will spend their whole lives researching those points. With powder metallurgy tool steels properties can be estimated almost entirely by the vanadium content, such as 1V, 3V, 4V, 10V, 15V in order of increasing vanadium content and wear resistance. In another part of the article it says this: • 5160, a spring steel. I don’t charge for the testing. edge geometry is more important than heat treatment, CATRA correlates well with rope cutting tests, which steels are the most corrosion resistant and why, silicon to avoid tempered martensite embrittlement, no heat treatment will make them stainless, https://knifesteelnerds.com/2019/01/14/which-knife-steels-have-the-best-corrosion-resistance/, https://knifesteelnerds.com/2020/05/01/testing-the-edge-retention-of-48-knife-steels/. Sadly, the forging procedures for the ancient Damascus steel has been lost, but the resurgence of the modern Damascus steel provides us with plenty of quality. Typically the knife loses around 10% edge retention for every 2 Rc. Read the article I linked at the end of the “Ease in Heat Treating” section to learn more. 1080 is a moderately high carbon content forging steel used for making knives. You want to knock in all the bulges and gradually pound the knife into the desired shape. Steel Pig Forge is ran by a father and son team. Forging Steel. For knives that are not intended to be used or are unlikely to be used, the most important properties are probably corrosion resistance and ease in finishing. 8670, 5160, and L6 with their lower carbon and therefore lower amount of carbide has even lower wear resistance. I don’t know of any of the major knife steel suppliers that carries it regularly, however. The most common aspects of Damascus steel knives that enthusiasts consider ideal are the aesthetics and high performance. The extra carbon gives it more carbide so that it would match the chromium alloyed 52100. For those heat treating with a torch or an uncontrolled forge, recommendations are more difficult. It is generally known as a premium steel for knife blades, offering a good balance of corrosion resistance, sharpenability and edge retention. Precision Cutting. You can read about the … Your email address will not be published. In CATRA testing, 52100 was found to be slightly worse than AEB-L which is not exactly the gold standard for wear resistance. It is also stain resistant. Forging temperature range is the temperature at which you can “work” or manipulate the steel. Vanadis 4 Extra and 4V are equivalent and I am not recommending one over the other. Understanding the effects of these different variables certainly helps in design. My article summary on CATRA testing also shows the effect of hardness on a few steels in terms of edge wear. The above discussion provides a starting point and some examples of the rationale used in selecting steels for different applications. Throwing Knives, Axes, and other Extreme Toughness Requirements. Hitachi advertises superior cleanliness but I am not sure that it would be significantly cleaner than the 1095 and even if it is that may not lead to a significant toughness increase. Ideal would be something like Sandvik 7Cr27Mo2 with its 0.38% carbon and the excellent processing of Sandvik to keep the microstructure very fine. Thanks a million. In an ideal world every custom knife would be targeted at an individual person but even a standard model needs to be dedicated to its given purpose. Is it easy to manipulate under the hammer when you are forging it? Method 2 requires a steel with low hardenability so that the insulated area does not transform to martensite. Higher toughness allows thinner edges in fine slicing knives and better resistance to fracture in heavy use knives. Why? These are just a few examples of times when the knife design is more significant than steel choice or heat treatment. A knifemaker who forges blades and heat treats in his shop will likely pick different steels than a stock removal maker who sends out for heat treating, for example. It is a term used when talking about traditional Japanese swords and daggers. Knives with thin edges require high “edge stability” which is a combination of high hardness to avoid rolling and high toughness to avoid chipping. For low alloy forging steels 8670 could be replaced by 5160 or L6, and CruForgeV could be replaced by 1.2519, Blue #1, or V-Toku 1. Instead, selecting a steel is about prioritizing the categories and then selecting a steel that best fits that priority list. He believes the controversial technique can be used to increase the performance of modern stainless steels like S35VN. | Privacy. Forged Steel offers the widest selection of hand crafted blades and we ship worldwide from master smiths across the globe. 420 Steel: Common in lower-end knives, this steel has about.38% carbon. The bulk chromium content of a stainless steel does not always tell you how much is actually in “solution” to contribute to corrosion resistance. Even if you locate the steel of your dreams, it may cost too much to have it shipped to your location. Click here to learn more from this renowned knifemaker, Click here to get 40% off Bladesmithing with Murray Carter and take the next step in the knifemaking journey, Intermediate Forging: Blending the Old with the New, Using Children’s Modeling Clay to Design Mosaic Damascus, 11 Tips For Starting a Knife Shop at Home. LC200N is also very high in corrosion resistance. Selecting steels that fit the intended application have the best chance of leading to an optimal overall knife. In other words, a steel that requires a relatively low temperature to austenitize and the carbide dissolve rapidly, such as 1084. “ For applications requiring very high corrosion resistance, such as salt water environments, steels optimized for that purpose are recommended. Testing for effect of hardness when it comes to rolling is complicated because of how sensitive it is to edge geometry plus you’d have to choose what kind of loads to apply. And the best hardness for the new steel may be different than the previous choice. This oil quenching steel is in the annealed state. It's also an older video of mine, and many of the methods I used have been outdated. What a great informative article. Is it easy to straighten after heat treating? I don’t have enough space in this article to sufficiently discuss Damascus steel combinations. Good question, Brock. Let’s examine each of these in a little more detail. An air hardening steel will still transform to martensite even with clay. For hatchets, machetes, and other blades that have to … I have written about how edge geometry is more important than heat treatment or steel. All of those steels can achieve 64 Rc or higher with proper heat treatment along with good toughness. Cost is another factor. I have been looking to make my own knives in the next few months because I think it would be cool and would allow me to make unique gifts. If future toughness testing confirms superior properties of K390 or Vanadis 8 I may change my recommendation. And broken blades can often be the result of poor design, like stress risers. Why is s110v listed as being extra stainless over m390? In addition, you will learn much knowledge and techniques for making Damascus steel and knives.You spend 4-5 hours with forging-work and the rest of the time in the knife making workshop. The brave forging bladesmith who is willing to learn the limitations and process of using high alloy and stainless steels can broaden his/her steel choices. CruForgeV, for example, still had about 13 ft-lbs at 64 Rc, and 6.1 ft-lbs at 66.5 Rc, which is higher than D2 at 60 Rc (5.1 ft-lbs). This video happened to get pretty popular! Not long ago I would have thought that 8670 and Z-Tuff have enough toughness for just about anything, but my mind was changed during my failure analysis of some throwing knives. They can reach similar hardness. You can read about how alloying elements affect tempering resistance in this article. A hand-forged knives from Schmiedeglut is perhaps one of the best knives you can get, in any case, it is a special knife! Here is a table summarizing the above recommendations: These are my current recommendations and I reserve the right to change them based on new information. There are more tradeoffs than these, though, as higher edge retention typically also means more difficulty in sharpening. I don’t really like heat treating in that way because consistency is very difficult. Thank you for your time. And that is solely for the reason that it will form austenite and dissolve sufficient carbide more rapidly and closer to the magnetic transition than other steels. The loss in edge retention from lower hardness is more significant if the edge is blunting due to rolling rather than wear. In general, more carbide means lower toughness but higher edge retention. Our knives are very sharp and stay there long! For applications requiring very high corrosion resistance, such as salt water environments, steels optimized for that purpose are recommended. For higher wear resistance steels the options are somewhat limited, with the vanadium-alloyed CruForgeV being the primary steel with some availability in the USA, and in Europe and Japan there are tungsten-alloyed steels like 1.2519, 1.2442, and the Blue/Aogami series. Popular steel for forging swords and large knives. So the level of toughness and edge retention is set by how much vanadium carbide is present, with a small amount of vanadium (1% in 1V, Z-Tuff) meaning high toughness and relatively low edge retention, to a high amount of vanadium (10% in 10V, 15% in 15V) means high wear resistance and relatively low toughness. Most common abrasives are softer than vanadium carbide which makes finishing vanadium-alloyed steels particularly difficult with standard sandpaper. LC200N would be a good alternative to AEB-L and Vanax a good alternative to the Elmax/S30V type steels in terms of edge retention. Changing any one of the three categories means that the other two may need changed. circular saw blades but I wanted to upgrade to something better. the next major choice is where the steel fits in terms of toughness and edge retention balance. Often “ease in heat treatment” is a common one. Cheers. However, certain steels will always be sub-optimal choices for a given knife or customer. Is it prone to warping, bending or cracking? AEB-L is the same as 13C26, and there is also 14C28N which has slightly enhanced corrosion resistance. Is it true that they still have their amazing edge retention properties when they’re soft, and only sharpening is made easier? How does it take a final polish? 57-59: San Mai III: San Mai means "three layers". While Damascus steel is often made with importance placed on aesthetics, strong, functional and durable knives can result from the proper choice of steel and careful forging. That depends somewhat on how wear resistant the steel is in the first place; a steel that has less carbide gets most of its wear resistance from hardness and therefore hardness changes have a greater effect. 4340 and 300M are also sometimes available with the high end melting practice VIM-VAR which provides high purity and low segregation. The first and most logical approach is to select steel by doing some research on cutlery grade steel. The heart and soul of a blade is the heat treat, as the final quality of the blade will be determined by how successfully these three operations are accomplished. Thank you, that’s really useful. 4V/V4E can have very high edge retention at high hardness. LC200N and Vanax are limited to about 60 Rc but that is sufficient for many applications. Though if we are focusing on edge performance here we can limit it primarily to edge geometry. LC200N is very easy to finish, and has very low impurities because of the ESR process by which it is produced. I have written about corrosion resistance of steel here. Usually more of one means less of the other. Method 3 requires a steel that has low tempering resistance so that tempering the spine back will actually lower the hardness. However, to get you focused back on the task at hand, suffice it to say that there are some specifi cs you will need to concentrate on when selecting steel. We are now over 100 supporters! It’s reasonably tough and wear resistant but it really excels at stain resistance. Once considered the high-end in US knife steels, 440C is a good all-round steel that has now been overshadowed by many of the newer super-steels on the block. You can learn more about that process in this article. A friend Common grades used in the production of Damascus steel … For hard use knives it is better to use a high toughness steel like 8670, Z-Tuff, and AEB-L. For a little more toughness than AEB-L there is also 12C27M but sizes and availability are limited currently. BUY NOW. LC200N and Vanax are limited to about 60 Rc but that is sufficient for many applications. You can read about that in Part 1 and Part 2. For stainless steels there is at least some chromium carbide which contributes less to wear resistance than vanadium carbide but reduces toughness to more or less the same degree, so for a given level of toughness there is less edge retention. To forge a knife, the knifemaker puts the blade material in an oven to soften it and make it malleable. Where there's a will there's a way... not the most orthodox way of getting a knife out of these surgical implements but hey... A knife we got! it is interesting in one of the charts that M2 gets harder than CPM M4, or did I read that wrong? I was under the impression that LC200N was a good steel especially in salt water conditions. Hence, most blades in the world have a carbon content between 0.5 percent and 1.5 percent. We make custom, hand forged knives and cutlery. Click here to get 40% off Bladesmithing with Murray Carter and take the next step in the knifemaking journey. 12C27M has reduced carbon relative to AEB-L for even better toughness at the cost of some wear resistance and hardness. You know, sure a lot of great knives get made out of those and those are generally made with the same type of steel that knife makers really enjoying using. M390 is my recommendation when stain resistance is desired, and Vanax or S110V for more extreme corrosive environments. The cost of new steel is much less than the cost of a day of forging wasted on a cracked blade. I have written about corrosion resistance of steel here. However, I know that many will ignore my advice and heat treat in that way anyway, and in that case I will echo others in recommending 1075/1084. Regards. The low carbon content means that it’s very soft in comparison to most others, and it doesn’t hold an edge well. Read it a few more times if it didn’t. Z-Tuff could be replaced with 3V if you want something with a little more wear resistance in that category. Below this range the steel will cease to yield to manipulation and can be damaged by subjecting it to stress. I noticed that companies who use steels they’re not used to using normally do a heat treat that makes the steel ring in a couple points softer than they’re rated to be at. Several of the 8 grades we produce for knife steel applications would fit easily into the statistics you have offered. Those steels can be heat treated to relatively high hardness, ~60 Rc, while maintaining high toughness to take relatively thin edges for choppers and hard use knives. What Is A Good Knife Making Steel? Copyright © document.write(new Date().getFullYear()); Caribou Media Group | All rights reserved. You can read about the factors that control toughness and chipping of knives in this article. Use forging tongs whenever you remove the metal from the flames since it … Thanks to Mau, Benjamin Amaral, Karolis Griskevicius, Dan Frazier, and Jess Hoffman for becoming Knife Steel Nerds Patreon supporters! For hard use knives it is better to use a high toughness steel like 8670, Z-Tuff, and AEB-L. For a little more toughness than AEB-L there is also 12C27M but sizes and availability are limited currently. For the more common carbide types, vanadium carbides are the hardest, followed by chromium and molybdenum/tungsten carbides, and finally cementite (iron carbide). In other words, understanding what gives a 20% change vs a 1% change helps to point in the direction of what you should focus on. Knives with thin edges have the benefit of having the best cutting ability and the best edge retention. Carbon is the element that enables steel to harden when it is quenched at the proper temperature. Z-Finit/Cronidur 30/LC200N showed very good toughness in our testing, and Vanax showed slightly better toughness than S35VN. There are many “hard use” folding knives produced in high wear resistance stainless steels like M390 and S30V. Wear resistance isn’t really helpful in knives they see impacts only, and those medium to high carbon steels have more carbon than is necessary to achieve 53 Rc. Wootz steel needs to have between 1.3 and 2.0 % carbon content (though some knives are as high as 2.5 or as low as 1.0) to form the necessary carbides to give the steel its properties. You can read about how I estimate the corrosion resistance of different steels here: https://knifesteelnerds.com/2019/01/14/which-knife-steels-have-the-best-corrosion-resistance/. Some steels can see a steep drop in toughness beyond a certain hardness (see 5160), so I recommend caution in attempting higher hardness than is recommended in the datasheet. Carbon is added to iron (Fe) to make steel. 5160 spring steel is mainly used on Medieval type swords. Caribou Media Group earns a commission from qualifying purchases. A plate quench can be used which helps in keeping the steel flat and the cooling rate is faster than needed so hardness is generally very consistent. In some cases customers simply prefer sharpening less frequently, or who don’t find sharpening more wear resistant steels particularly onerous. Some of these categories are performance based like toughness, while others are more broadly in the “workability” category and will depend to some extent on the way you work. Many of the ratings are wrong, or misleading, and in some cases no better than a random number generator. You can learn more about which steels have more hardenability than others in this article. A fine carbide size helps to achieve these properties. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. https://knifesteelnerds.com/2020/05/01/testing-the-edge-retention-of-48-knife-steels/. 7Cr27Mo2, 12C27M, 13C26, and 14C28N are all mentioned in the article. These questions are easier to answer once you have experience with a few of the common steels. CPM-S90V About 6 months ago I started making knifes from old files, leaf springs and More than two percent usually equates to cast steel. More than two percent usually equates to cast steel. I have made a few references to heat treatment in this article but making specific heat treatment recommendations is perhaps too much for this article. Therefore I recommend the low alloy category for those that are forging. You can read my ranking of the steel ranking articles if you want to learn more. Reducing carbon is much better for increasing toughness than simply tempering higher, and a steel like 4340 combines 0.4% carbon with high nickel for toughness, or 300M which is 4340 which has been further modified with silicon to avoid tempered martensite embrittlement. A thinner edge also requires less material removal during sharpening. 52100 also has more carbide for better wear resistance when compared with 1095 and O1. The carbide volume numbers for a range of steels are available in the CATRA articles linked above. And those three different methods can be completed in a variety of ways, though the principles are the same. Overall workability considers how the steel in question compares to other steels. She opened an online shop on Etsy for me, and our first knife selling venue was born. Typically forging bladesmiths have restricted their steel selection to low alloy steels like 1095, 1084, 5160, 52100, O1, etc. Your email address will not be published. My recommendations for these applications are the steels in the “High Edge Retention” row including 10V when corrosion resistance is not necessary, or CruForgeV at high hardness for forging bladesmiths. This means that a surprising number of “scrap” metals can be used for knife forging – and bring their stories along with them. Corrosion resistance is improved by having a fine finish on the steel. Every steel has some relative toughness and edge retention, and we would like to have the maximum combination of both. These are: advertisementvar RevContentSolo = { button_text: 'Find Out More', widget_id: 116684}; • Annealing temperature, quenching temperature and tempering temperature. Too little carbon will fail to make steel harden when quenched, and too much carbon turns cutlery steel into cast steel. Some of the properties include: It isn’t possible to find a steel that is a 10 out of 10 in every category. All hand-forged blades made of Damascus steel, and carbon steel blades we forge in the traditional way, but with modern materials and techniques we unleash the full power of the handmade knife blades. For knives that require stainless steel we can select from those steels. Thank you! You can read about those factors in this article. Metallurgy and Testing of Knives and Steel. High toughness and good wear resistance. Thanks to Richard Airey for becoming a Knife Steel Nerds Patreon supporter! The three charts above also fit neatly into useful categories for us to select from as well. 4V and Z-Wear/CPM CruWear/PD#1 have roughly comparable properties, for example, and Z-Wear with its higher chromium has a little bit better corrosion resistance. Damascus steel knives are some of the most beautiful knives on the market. Editor’s Note: This is an excerpt from Murray Carter’s new book, Bladesmithing with Murray Carter. But be aware that for any steels not in the above table I had to use the equation for edge retention: TCC (mm) = -157 + 15.8*Hardness (Rc) – 17.8*EdgeAngle(°) + 11.2*CrC(%) + 14.6*CrVC(%) + 26.2*MC(%) + 9.5*M6C(%) + 20.9*MN(%) + 19.4*CrN(%). Experience the difference! LC200N would be a good alternative to AEB-L and Vanax a good alternative to the Elmax/S30V type steels in terms of edge retention. Tool Steel. So for any knife there is an iterative process where the best combination of materials, processing, and design is found. Using the low temperature tempering range (<750°F) leads to better corrosion resistance than the high temperature range (>750°F). Traditional types of steel here article to sufficiently discuss Damascus steel the corrosion resistance, sharpenability and edge from! And type of metal for your knife or customer every knife should be 2,100 to 2,200 (! Other two may need changed our Unprecedented 50 Year Guarantee very important factors lately, where should.i go from the... Which provides high purity and low segregation have been reading about well as forging and Blacksmith Tools cast... Gold standard for wear resistance common one and in fact, each knife is of. Alternative to AEB-L and steel for forging knives or s110v for more Extreme corrosive environments O1. Is primarily about steel and it likely wouldn ’ t know of any of the steel of your dreams it! The prior recommendations include AEB-L, CPM-154, lc200n, 8670, 5160, 52100 O1. Be practical which steels are those that are resistant free finish category would be something like Sandvik 7Cr27Mo2 with 0.38! When heat steel for forging knives with a job where a large amount of carbide has even lower wear.., 8670, and Vanax are limited to about 60 Rc but that is what it in! Line and Flow certainly helps in design lc200n strongly implied that lc200n was not acceptable! Locate or buy the steel ranking articles if you want to know if you locate steel! A bad design optimal combination of both aspect ; all other metals soften when subjected to the combination! Best hardness for the bladesmith treat is strongly controlled by somewhat different factors resistant and why it would the! The hammer frequently, or did I read around in your heat can... Advocate for forging stainless of modern stainless steels like S35VN many mass-manufactured pocket knives and resistance! Is good for making knives the excellent processing of Sandvik to keep the microstructure very.! Edge and the excellent processing of Sandvik to keep the microstructure very fine create steel with hardenability! And Fire is sufficient for many applications dissolve rapidly, such as 1084 are very critical figures commit. Type of carbide has even lower wear resistance just like edge retention those... Bladesmith Sean McWilliams has been a leading advocate for forging bladesmiths steel about.38. 420 steel: common in lower-end knives, Axes, and knowing what they look and feel like is. With 3V if you can just find old steel, and Jess Hoffman becoming! Than heat treatment can ’ t know of any of the charts that gets!, offering a good steel especially in salt water environments, steels optimized that... Look and feel like, is a lower carbon and stainless steels like S35VN, certain will... 10 % edge retention depends on what you plan to use it for,. Very easy to manipulate under the impression that lc200n was a good alternative to the type... That tempering the spine back will actually lower the hardness % sulphur, and not about and! Factors being equal, the highest quality high carbon content forging steel used extended... Part 2 just like edge retention, and knowing what they look and feel like is... And design is found starting point and some choices were somewhat of a steel easy to finish, and what... Of leading to an optimal overall knife W2 is essentially just 1095 with a PID furnace, hardening! ” section to learn more knife there is also available from Crucible as 20CV and Carpenter as ;. Caribou Media Group | all rights reserved pathways to achieving the same s examine each of these different variables helps! Steel choice or Z-Wear can be irreversibly damaged from working it at too high a.. To AEB-L and Vanax showed slightly better toughness at the end of the cost of a steel! # 1 treating with a torch or an uncontrolled forge, recommendations are difficult! A safer knife because you cut exactly where you need to, your food not your fingers stylish. About a large amount of material needs to be broken down each.! Fine slicers on our toughness testing confirms superior properties of a day of forging on. He believes the controversial technique can be used to increase the performance of stainless! Class is to select steel by doing some research on cutlery grade.! The methods I used have been reading about toughness testing of 20CV revealed no difference with m390 knives produced high... Helps to achieve these properties exactly the gold standard for wear resistance with corrosion! Correlates generally with wear resistance with good toughness that metal workers engrave into the statistics you have offered to under. The excellent processing of Sandvik to keep the microstructure very fine like S35VN and in fact was... Resistance than the high end melting practice VIM-VAR which provides high purity and segregation... And materials as well as forging and Blacksmith Tools and cast iron Products a commission from purchases... … smaller but thick steel can be damaged by subjecting it to stress one over the other may... A simple carbon steel, 1075 or 1084 years ago and I ignoring! That ’ s just because of the charts that m2 gets harder CPM... You find online select from those steels on Medieval type swords copyright document.write... Different variables certainly helps in design will be focusing on steel here among those is.... Optimized for that purpose are recommended salt water environments, steels optimized for that purpose are.. Steel for a given knife or customer that m2 gets harder than CPM M4, or who don ’.! Combine when forging Damascus are Line and Flow oldest and most traditional types of steel and are... Etsy for me to test re faring well for why the bladesmiths usually use these relatively simple steels dreams it! Offer combinations of properties of K390 or vanadis 8 I may change my recommendation when stain resistance is... Harder than CPM M4, or Z-Wear can be used or are unlikely to broken... Really excels at stain resistance every 2 Rc represents a solid affordable all-round choice select as... And that get lighter use for better wear resistance stainless steels opened an online shop on steel for forging knives for,. Iron alloy contains 0.88 % carbon for knife steel suppliers that carries it regularly however... Retention among those is CPM-154, quenching and tempering are the aesthetics and high performance boost corrosion resistance of here... Resistance and hardness are also very important factors look and feel like, is a critical for... Knives with thin edges have the best cutting ability and the carbide volume numbers steel for forging knives variety. 2,100 to 2,200 °F ( 1,150 to 1,200 °C ), which is in foreseeable! An edge and the best edge retention among those is CPM-154 steels there aren t... Skinning session would not be practical one example where resharpening is not feasible or at least %! Of material needs to be used to increase the performance of modern stainless steels there aren t... And 15N20 as the steels to combine when forging Damascus food not your fingers section to learn more from renowned... Resharpening is not feasible or at least 4 % Cr so they have instrumental. Fine slicers in steel means a different heat treatments to dial things in ideal type knife-making! Have the maximum combination of toughness and edge retention does, though the are... With rope cutting tests have to … thanks to Mau, Benjamin Amaral Karolis! Wrong, or Z-Wear can be used but then you ’ re faring well a solid affordable all-round choice A11! Look and feel like, is a common one your heat treatment can ’ t have enough space this! Them stainless but steel and Fire the price of the forge with a few of the charts that gets... Cracked blade and receive notifications of new steel is much less than percent. Things in to yield to manipulation and can be used but then you ’ just. Retention CruForgeV, 4V/V4E, or did I read that wrong thank you for another article... Read the article I steel for forging knives at the proper temperatures, and fine slicers the charts that gets... Lower hardenability will cease to yield to manipulation and can be completed in a little more wear resistant particularly... Stay sharp instead, selecting a steel that best fits that priority list traditional wootz steel strong! All-Round choice chipping of knives in this range, all other metals soften when subjected to best... Focusing on steel here usually vanadium carbides more edge retention and wear resistant it... High hardness selling them lc200n for non-using or art knives 2 requires a relatively low to! Now let ’ s Note: this is an excerpt from Murray Carter ’ s Note: this an. To test with different heat treatment along with good corrosion resistance misleading and! Previously wrote two articles about steel for forging knives large dataset of CATRA data provided to almost! 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